Harlem Hellfighter Receives Congressional Medal of Honor Posthumously
Henry Lincoln Johnson (1897-1929), who served valiantly as part of the 369th regiment (known as the Harlem Hellfighters) received the Congressional Medal of Honor posthumously in a ceremony at the White House on June 2, 2015, almost one hundred years after his return from war.
At the same White House ceremony, Sgt. William Shemin (1896-1973) , another World War I hero, was also honored with the Congressional Medal of Honor. Shemin had faced discrimination because he was Jewish.
“We are a nation, a people, who remember our heroes,” President Barack Obama said of the two men, according to press reports. “They both left us decades ago, before we could give them the full recognition that they deserve. But it’s never too late to say thank you.
“It takes our nation too long, sometimes, to say so,” he continued. “We have work to do as a nation to make sure that all of our heroes’ stories are told. The least we can do is to say, ‘We know who you are, we know what you did for us. We are forever grateful.’”
Johnson is only the second African American to receive the Medal of Honor for World War I service.
Harlem Hellfighters Exhibited Great Bravery
Johnson, a member of the all-black 369th Infantry Regiment, was passed over for U.S. governmental honors for nearly eight decades. Just after the war, Johnson received the distinguished Croix de Guerre by the French under whose flag the 369th fought. His ribbon also featured a golden palm for “extraordinary valor;” he was the first American to receive this high honor from the French government.
He received no honors from the United States, and the Harlem Hellfighters were barred from participating in the Victory Parade in New York City in 1918.
However, Johnson was acknowledged for his deeds by the American military as they used him for a period of time to help with recruitment. Following this, Johnson returned to Albany but was unable to find work because of pain from his war injuries. He died destitute at age 32. Someone took note of who he was, however, and he did receive burial at Arlington National Cemetery.
Eventually a group of scholars and activists took up Johnson’s cause and in 1996, he received a posthumous Purple Heart. The group went on to campaign for further recognition, and in 2003 he was given the Distinguished Service Cross.
“America can’t change what happened to Henry Johnson,” Obama said. “We can’t change what happened to too many soldiers like him who went uncelebrated because America judged them by the color of their skin and not the content of their character. But we can do our best to make it right.”
Mary Ellen Pleasant, Entrepreneur and Abolitionist
Abolitionist and successful Gold Rush entrepreneur Mary Ellen Pleasant was a free woman of mixed-race who dedicated her life to equality for African Americans. From... »
Horace Pippin: Gifted Painter and Harlem Hellfighter
When it became clear that the U.S. would enter World War I, Horace Pippin left... »
Martin Luther King Jr. and the Montgomery Bus Boycott
Martin Luther King, Jr. was 25 years old when he and his new wife, Coretta, moved to Montgomery, Alabama in 1954. He was to be... »
Barbara Jordan, Congresswoman and Trailblazer
Barbara Jordan (1936-96) was a dynamic and forceful African American from Texas who made great strides for American citizens. She exhibited a positive outlook, great... »